A capacitor is an electrical device capable of storing energy in an
electric field between a pair of conductors. Capacitors are used in
various circuits as energy-storage devices. In addition, they can
also be used as electronic filters, being used to differentiate high
and low frequencies.
A Diode is a small two-terminal device used in electronics to
control the current flow through parts. Most commonly, a Diode
allows an electric current flow in through one direction, and
blocks it flowing through the other direction.
Hybrid Integrated Circuits
A HIC is simply a smaller version of a normal electronic circuit
built of individual devices such as diodes, resistors, transistors,
or capacitors. These parts are then bonded to a Printed Circuit
Similar to a Hybrid Integrated Circuit, an Integrated Circuit is a
smaller version of an electronic circuit and consists of
semiconductor and passive components. The difference though,
is that an IC is manufactured right into the surface of a thin
substrate of material. These are used mostly with various digital
These devices are pieces of equipment that generate a magnetic
field in order to create energy. Made of a magnetic core,
followed by a conductive winding surrounding it, this is
connected to a circuit board as an auxiliary form of power.
One of the most essential parts in modern electronic parts,
semiconductors help the electrical conductivity of various
devices. Their level of performance can range between that of a
conductor or an insulator, for a dynamic period of time or permanently.
A fundamental part to building computers, a transistor is used to
amplify or change electronic signals. These parts are a type of
semiconductor device, and are occasionally packed separately,
but most common can be found already part of an integrated
circuit. Most transistors can be categorized into two types:
bipolar junction transistors and field effect transistors
These parts are used to join different electrical circuits together
for temporary or permanent use. With a low contact resistance
and higher insulation value these components are resistant to
many forms of liquid as well as pressure and vibration.
Depending on the form of connector used, these parts are able to
support single or multiple circuits at one time.
Resistors are two-terminal components used to manage the flow
of an electric current. This is done when a drop in voltage is
created between two points, and the theory of Ohm’s Law is
applied to figuring the voltage shift between the two various ends
of the connector.
A resonator is a device that automatically oscillates, or alternates,
at various frequencies. The amplitude of the oscillating
wavelengths in these resonators varies depending on the actual
size of the device which a resonator is being used in. These
waves can come in electromagnetic or mechanical form.
A transducer is a device that converts one type of energy into
another for different reasons including measurement or
information transfer. These usually are either or an electronic or
photonic base, as it converts a parameter from one form to
another of electrical or digital signal.
This device is a type of capacitor where the ability to store
energy is able to be switched on or off. This can be done
intentionally and a number of times either mechanically or
This device is basically a diode and a capacitor in one. These are
used in a reverse-biased function when controlling the amount of
voltage flowing through the part.
Also know as the Graetz circuit, a Bridge Rectifier is a set of
four diodes connected to a bridge circuit. This diode provides an
equal output polarity to that of the input polarity of voltage,
though the polarity of the output is constant.
Light Emitting Diode
A Light-Emitting Diode (LED) is a semiconductor diode that
emits a light when electronically biased in a forward direction of
a p-n junction. Basically these LEDs are used as light indicators
on electronic devices.
This diode takes light and converts it into an electric current, or
voltage depending on how it is to be operated. They are similar
to semiconductor diodes, except for how they are packaged.
Photodiodes can be left exposed or packed with an optical fibre
connection to allow more light into responsive places.
Hot Carrier Diode
Also a semiconductor based diode, a Schottky Diode has a low
forward voltage drop and fast switching action. Standard diodes
have a drop between 0.3 volts to 0.7 volts, yet this diode has a
drop of about 0.15 to 0.46 volts due to a forward biases of
Rectifier, Bridge Rectifier
A Zener Diode works exactly the same as a standard diode.
They only additional feature of this form of diode is that it allows
a larger voltage count to flow in a reverse direction.
A LED display is a system of LEDs that are joined together to
create a larger surface in order to portray a specific object or
message using LED lights. These devices and be programmed
manually or via an electronic connection.
Opto Switch, Opto Interrupter, Optical Switch, Optical Interrupter, Photo switch, Photo Interrupter
Opto-Isolator, Opto-Coupler, Photo-Coupler
An analog circuit works with consistently varying volts and
currents. It takes these raw measurements and modifies them
into a way that will be useful, usually to be converted into a
A digital circuit uses discrete values to represent different forms
of information. Unlike an analog circuit the information is then
displayed as either numbers, letters, or icons, in addition to being
displayed in a continuous form such as sounds or images.
Bipolar Junction Transistor
Simply a bipolar transistor that is in a clear casing so light can
penetrate it and reach the base-collector junction. They are
highly sensitive to major levels of light, but not to low levels.
These transistors also have a slower response time.
Bipolar Junction Transistor
A Bipolar Junction Transistor in a three-terminal device that is
used in amplifying or changing applications. They are
constructed from doped semiconductor material and operate
using both electrons and holes.
A Darlington Transistor is made of two bipolar transistors in one
device so the current is amplified twice. The transistors may be
of either an NPN or a PNP make. This gives it a higher
current gain and means taking up less space.
A Photo Darlington Transistor is virtually the same as a regular
Darlington. It is made of two bipolar transistors in one device so
the current is amplified twice. The only difference in that in a
Photo Darlington, the input transistor must be a phototransistor
while the second output may be of either an NPN or a PNP
make. This gives it a higher current gain and means taking up
Similar to a Darlington Transistor, the Sziklai Pair is made of
two bipolar transistors. Also amplifying the electric current
twice, and to the same degree, the only difference is of what
types of bipolar transistors are used. A Sziklai Pair must include
both a NPN and a PNP transistor.
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
This device is a semiconductor based part with three terminals.
It’s recognized for its high efficiency and fast switching as it
combines an isolated-gate for control with a bipolar power
transistor as a switch.
One of the most commonly used connectors for LAN
connections; an 8P8C is simply a modular connector with 8
positions and 8 connectors. This connector is used for cable or
DSL modems for computers.
A Power Connector is designed to carry a large amount of electrical power at a low frequency.
Radio Frequency Connectors
A connector used in a radio circuit that doesn’t allow external
signals in or any energy used out. While a seemingly simple
concept, the successful use of a connector depends on the level
of radio frequency. As a frequency gets higher the control of the
connector becomes more critical.
This is a device that decreases in resistance as incident light
intensity increases. Basically, a Photoresistor takes high
frequency light and turns it into a usable form of energy.
Field effect transistor
High Electron Mobility Transistor
This device is a field effect transistor that forms a junction
between two materials with different band gaps.
Field effect transistor
Junction Field Effect Transistor
This form of a transistor is the simplest model of a field effect
transistor. It can be used as an electronically-controlled switch
or as a voltage-controlled resistance. It’s made of three basic
parts; the beginning connector called a source, where an electric
current comes from, a second connector called a drain, and a
third connector called a gate, which regulates the current flow.
The gate used is of a p-n junction.
Field effect transistor
Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET
A MOSFET is the most commonly used field-effect transistor. It
is used in both digital and analog circuits to amplify or switch
Field effect transistor
MEtal Semiconductor FET
A MESFET is a simple field effect model used as an
electronically-controlled switch or as a voltage-controlled
resistance. Its build is the same as a JFET, only instead of a p-n
junction used as a gate, a Schottky junction is used.
Hall Effect Sensor
Magnetic Field Sensor
A hall sensor is used for propinquity in switching, positioning,
speed detection, and current sensing applications. It’s a type of
transducer that varies an output voltage in response to changes in
its magnetic field.
A Laser LED is a laser with an active semiconductor working as
a medium. Similar to a light-emitting diode, this form of a LED
is formed by a p-n junction and powered by an injected electrical
A Zener diode allows an electric current to flow in an easy
forward direction like a standard diode. Yet, unlike a standard
diode, the Zener model also allows the current to flow in a
reverse direction if the voltage is greater then the breakdown
Used mainly in laser cooling for near infrared devices this device
is similar to a VCSEL is all ways. Unlike the VCSEL though,
instead of having two mirrors parallel to water surfaces, one
mirror is left to be external in an VECSEL.
This is an extremely fast operating semiconductor that uses
quantum mechanical effects. They are also heavily doped with
p-n junctions which can result in broken bandgaps.
A Schottky Diode is a form of semiconductor with low forward
voltage and known for its fast switching action. While standard
diodes have a voltage drop between 0.7 and 0.3, the Shottky is
much higher. With a drop between 0.15 to 0.46 volts, and a
forward bias around 1mA, these diodes are most useful in
helping to prevent transistor saturation. In addition, these parts
are also used for protecting solar cells as they are hooked up with
lead-acid batteries or in switched-mode power supplies.
this device is made of a wide intrinsic semiconductor found
between heavily doped p-type and n-type semiconductors. A
PIN Diode works as a high-injection device, and works to create
equilibrium with the flooded electrons of a current. They are
usually found in RF switches and photo detectors.
A form of photo detector, a photocell is used to detect sources of
light or other electromagnetic energy. These come in a variety of
different forms as well. These parts can vary from an optical
detector anywhere to a cryogenetic detector.
Similar to an LED, a laser diode is made with a semiconductor as
its active medium. Most commonly, a laser diode is created
when a p-junction is injected with an electrical current to power
Made with silicon carbide, the IMPATT diode is a type of high
power diode. Typically, these are used in high-frequency
electronics and microwave devices. These diodes often work at
frequencies between 3 and 100 GHz and higher, making them
ideal to use in anything from alarms to low power radar systems.
The one negative feature of these parts though is the high level of
phase noise that is created, yet it is still valued as a microwave
generator for most parts
Also known as a transferred electron device, this diode is often
used in high-frequency electronics. Unlike most diodes, which
contain both P and N-doped regions, the Gunn model is made
only of N-doped material. The diode functions when a voltage is
applied to the device causing a larger electrical gradient to pass
over a thin layer of doped material found between two heavily N-
doped terminals eventually causing it to become a form of
A DIAC is a specific diode that functions as a bidirectional
trigger to conduct a current after the breakdown voltage has been
exceeded momentarily. This causes a sudden decrease in
resistance then a sharp decrease in voltage across the diode,
followed by a sharp increase in current flow.
This diode is usually made from silicon and designed to work at
a specified reverse bias voltage and as a type of voltage
reference. This diode is operated through an Avalanche
breakdown, a form of electric current multiplication to flow
within materials, that allows a breakdown voltage of over 4000V.
A semiconductor with 4 layers of N and P type of material
alternating, Thyristors act as a switch when the current is kept in
a forward bias. These parts have three main states: reverse
blocking mode, forward blocking mode, and forward conducting
Field Effect Transistor
A Field Effect is a form of transistor that relies on an electric
field to control shape. This reliance creates the conductivity of a
channel in the material, controlling the floe of electrons as well.
There are two basic forms of a Unijunction Transistor. An
original unijunction which is a rather simple device made of a N
type semiconductor bar with P type material diffused into.
Another form is a programmable unijunction type, which is fairly
similar to a thyristor. The programmable unit is made up of four
P-N layers with an Anode and Cathode connected at each end.
Both forms of transistor are used as a trigger device for a
thyristor and an active device for an oscillator. The circuits used
can be controlled via a DC voltage.
A three terminal device constructed of doped semiconductor
material, the bipolar transistor is used in amplifying or switching
applications. They operate by means of electrons and holes.
TRIode for Alternating Current
A TRIAC is basically two silicon-controlled rectifiers with their
gates connected together as joined in inverse parallel. This
creates a bidirectional switch which will allow a current to be
conducted in either direction when the device is turned on.
Static Induction Transistor/Thyristor
A SIT is a common thyristor where the gate electrodes are placed
in an n-based region. It’s also a vertical structure device with
Silicon Controlled Rectifier
A four layer solid state device that controls current flow, this
SCR is a type of rectifier. In this device, a p-type layer acts as an
anode and an n-type as a cathode. Because of this the cathode is
used as a gate.
A thermal transducer is any part used in electronic engineering
that can convert energy. It works by taking any form of energy
already being used by a device, and converting it into a form of
heat energy to be used.
Also known as a position sensor, this device is used for
measuring a position then converting the measurement into an
easier means of transmission.
A Thermocouple is a type of temperature sensor that can be used
to convert thermal potential difference into electric potential
difference as well. These devices can measure a large range of
temperatures, though their accuracy is sometimes difficult to
gauge within a system error of less then one degree. Relatively
cheap, this part also comes with standard connectors and is
A form of resistor who’s resistance varies according to
temperature used more commonly as inrush current limiters,
temperature sensors, self-resetting overcurrent protectors, and
self-regulating heating elements.
An electrical safety device used to interrupt electrical current
flow when heated to a certain temperature. It’s used with a
thermal fuse as a cutoff which uses a one-time fusible link and
cannot be reset.
Resistance Temperature Detector
RTD’s are temperature sensors that exploit the predictable
change of electrical resistance in materials as their temperature
changes. They mostly are made of platinum and used in many
industrial applications below 600 degrees Celsius
This device is used to measure the energy of incident
electromagnetic radiation. The Bolometer is made of an
absorber that gets connected to a heat sink and absorbs the
radiation present. This causes the temperature of the absorber
above the heat sink and allows a person to read the level of
An electric motor formed from ultrasonic vibration of a
component. Though it still uses a form of piezoelectric material,
like a piezoelectric actuator, it also is made of either lead
zirconate, titanate, or another form of single-crystal material.
The ultrasonic motor also uses resonance to amplify the vibration
of the stator.
Surface Acoustic Wave Filters
SAW filters are commonly found in radio frequency
applications. This device takes electrical signals and converts
them to a mechanical wave in a piezoelectric crystal before
turning back into an electrical signal by means of more
Known also as a crystal oscillator, this device is an electronic
circuit that uses mechanical resonance to create an electrical
signal with a precise frequency. This resonance is made of a
vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create the frequency.
In turn the frequency is used to keep time and a stable clock
signal for digital integrated circuits.
This type of resonator is used to produce oscillation at a precise
frequency when paired with other components. It’s made of a
voltage variable capacitor that acts as a quartz crystal. They are
also made of high-stability ceramics that work as a mechanical
resonator. The vibrating that occurs when voltage is applied
causes the oscillating signal while the thickness of the ceramic
determines the frequency.
Trimmers can be used as variable resistors or variable capacitors,
and when set correctly in a device used as a miniature component
that is virtually unseen or touched by the device’s user. These
parts are mounted right onto the circuit boards and commonly
found in precision circuitry.
Electrical wire used for its resistance. This wire is used when
high temperatures are present because of its high melting point.
This wire is found in high-power resistors and heating elements
in devices which produce heat.
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